意大利国家卫生法

(自翻译)

 

THE ITALIAN NATIONAL MENTAL HEALTH LAW

 

 

Short description and comments[1]

概述及评论

The Italian mental health law reform consists of a set of laws: one national law on the principles and 20 regional laws on policies, according to the Italian Constitution who give a high autonomy to the Regions in the planning, management and administration of health services.

意大利精神卫生法改革法案包括以下法案律:一部有关原则的全国性法律和二十部有关政策的地区性法律。根据意大利宪法,各省对卫生机构在计划、管理和行政方面享有高度自治。 The national law was firstly approved the 13th of May 1978 with number 180. Six month later, the 31 of December 1978, it was included, with minor modifications, within the General Health Law no. 833.

该全国性法律在1978年5月13日得到180票赞成通过。6个月后,在1978年12月31日,该法经过少量修改后被收录并入第833号普通健康法第833条中(General Health Law no.833)。

Therefore the Italian mental health law now consists of four articles ( 33, 34, 35 and 64)  of the Law no. 833.

因此现行的意大利精神卫生法由第833号法律的4个条款组成(第33,34,35和64条)。

During the reform’s twenty-five years of existence, the national law has never been changed whereas there have been many revisions to all the regional laws.

此后在这25年的改革中,这方面的该全国性法律没有作任何变更,然而推动了地区性法律却的多次变更经多次修订。

1. The pillars of the national law

全国性法律的主要原则

Three are the pillars of the national law :

全国性法律有3个重要原则:

A ban on building new mental hospitals and on admitting new patients to the existing ones, which had to be gradually phased out and used for other purposes.

禁止修建新的精神病医院以及禁止允许新的病人住进现有的精神病医院,现存的精神病医院也要逐步停止使用或转作他用。

The principle that the prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of the mentally ill normally be carried out in community services. The law also establishes the creation of Services or Stations for Psychiatric Diagnosis and Treatment within the General Hospitals, which can have a maximum of 15 beds each.

原则上社区服务机构是精神疾病的预防、治疗和康复的主要方式。法律也规定了精神诊疗服务中心/精神专科医院或普通医院中的精神科的发展,每个类似机构最多拥有15张病床。

The establishment of Involuntary Health Treatment ( IHT)

非自愿性精神治疗的成立/强制性治疗(IHT)

2. The Involuntary Health Treatment

As in the case of  involuntary treatment for other illnesses provided for in the same article of the law, IHT for mental illness must be implemented respecting people’s dignity and their civil and political rights. It must be accompanied by initiatives to ensure the consent and participation of the person receiving involuntary treatment.

Involuntary treatment is requested  by two physicians. One must be a psychiatrist from the public mental health department.

如本法所述的其他强制性治疗,对精神病患的强制性治疗必须保障尊重人们患者的尊严及他们的其民事和政治权利。

非自愿性治疗必须在一开始就得到被治疗者的同意和主动参与。强制性治疗必须由两个精神病医生进行,其中一个必须来自政府的公共精神卫生部门。

The IHT is ordered by the mayor or by a delegate and it is authorised by the tutelary judge who is entrusted with the jurisdictional safeguard of  such treatment.

非自愿性性治疗必须经过一名地区长官或一名议会代表申请(批准?),而且要由对该治疗具备监管管辖权的监护法庭法官授权执行。,以保证这一治疗过程的司法权利。

Involuntary treatment can be done in the General Hospital Psychiatric Stations and also in the Mental Health Centres.

普通医院的精神科和精神专科医院同样可以进行非自愿性治疗。

If involuntary treatment exceeds 7 days, and in cases of further extensions, the psychiatrist must follow the above mentioned procedure ( mayor + judge) and give a written explanation for any such extension.

如果非自愿性治疗超过7日,如果要延长治疗,精神病医生必须再次行遵循上述的书面申请程序,即通过地区长官申请批准同时得到监护法官的允许授权,同时书面陈述延长治疗的原因。

3. Comments on IHT

非自愿性治疗的评价

The reason for involuntary treatment is no longer that the patient is dangerous but that the patient needs help.

非自愿性治疗的原因不再是隔离危险的病人,而是帮助病人。

In the words of the law, involuntary treatment must be provided if and when “mental condition of the person requires urgent treatment that the person does not accept”.

法律规定,非自愿性治疗的实施必须要证明“病人的精神状况需要紧急治疗,但病人拒绝接受治疗”。(我认为这里不是必须证明这种情况而是当这种情况出现,必须对病人实施治疗。)

That has some important consequences:

这导致了一些重要变化:

the fact that a mentally ill person does not accept treatment is no longer an indication that he or she is socially dangerous;

the psychiatrist is no longer obliged to control and repress social dangerousness;

obliging mentally ill persons to receive treatment is a way of protecting their rights not reducing them. That make acceptable an involuntary treatment provided by community services: it is not anymore a police measure.

不接受治疗精神病患者不再是社会危险的象征;精神病患者不接受治疗不再表明就具有社会危害性。

精神病医生不再负有控制和抑制社会危险的职责;

迫使精神病患者接受治疗成为了是为了一种保护他们权益而不是剥削削弱他们的权利的方式。这使社区非自愿性治疗获得了大众的接受,而不再仅仅是一种强制手段。

Most of the legislations, even the ones stating the respect of human rights, give social dangerousness as the reason for involuntary treatment, keep the existence of mental hospitals and the legitimacy of seclusion for the mentally ill citizens.

大多数立法,甚至是那些号称要保护人权的立法,都把“社会危险害性”作为非自愿性治疗的原因之一,导致精神病医院的存续和精神病患者的隔绝。,保持精神病医院的存续,并确认对精神病患者进行隔离的合法性。

Those legislations protect the rights of the mental patient by limiting and controlling the psychiatrists’ work – for example, by making distinctions between compulsory treatment and the compulsory administration of drugs, by supervising seclusion and some specific treatment etc.

这些立法通过限制和控制精神病医生的工作权限来保护精神病患者的权益——例如,区分强制治疗和强制戒毒,监督隔离措施以及一些特殊具体治疗方式等。(我认为这里不是戒毒,好像跟毒品没关系。个人认为应当是对药品的强制或义务性管理。)

The Italian legislator considered that those forms of control cannot be fully effective in   protecting the rights of patients as soon as mental illness continue to have a “special statute” among illnesses and the psychiatrist continues to be responsible for controlling and repressing social dangerousness.

意大利立法者担心认为,只要精神病患仍然受到“特殊关照”(只要对精神疾病作为一般疾患的一种始终进行“特别立法”),并且依然课以精神科医生义务控制社会危险,精神病人的权利将不能得到有效保障,

As a result, under Italian law, this last responsibility is entirely given to the police and to the other institutions of the criminal justice system.

所以,在意大利法律中,控制社会危险的职责完全赋予给警察和其他刑事机构。

Psychiatric services and police can or must do act together, in case of need, each on its own specific responsibility.

在必要的时候,精神病卫生机构和警察也可以共同履行他们各自的职责。(这是个中文病句。可表述为,“可以或必须在履行各自具体自责范围的同时联合起来行动”

4.The movement for reform

This reform have had a very long period of preparation.

The movement for reform has started in Italy in the in the late sixties, leaded by the work of the psychiatrist Franco Basaglia and pushed by a network of  “de-institutionalisation” practices which have started up to create community services already before the reform, with the resources no longer needed once the hospital wards were closed.

In 1968 Italy has had a first partial law reform, the law n.431, and ten years later the parliament approved the present law in the framework of the general health law reform.

4.法律修订运动(最开始把reform译为改革,这里似可保持一致,还为改革较好)

这次的法律修定经过了很长时间的准备(筹备)。

意大利的这次法律修订运动发生在上世纪六十年代末,由精神病医生Franco Basaglia带领导,由一个践行“去制度化”的组织网推动,该组织在法律修定前就已经广泛着手创建社区服务机构开展社区精神病治疗,因为一旦关闭一些不再被使用的精神病房被关闭,一些资源就不再有用了。的“反被住院(de-institutionalisation)”组织推动。

在1968年,第431号法案的通过,预示着第一次实现部分法律修订。十年后议会通过了在现存现行普通卫生法体系框架下的法律修订。

 

THE ARTICLES OF THE ITALIAN NATIONAL MENTAL HEALTH LAW[2]

意大利国家卫生法案

Art. 33

Norms for voluntary and involuntary health assessments and treatments

33 自愿与非自愿健康诊断及治疗准则

Health assessments and treatments are normally voluntary.  In cases provided for by the present law and in cases expressly provided for by other laws, the health authorities may order involuntary health assessments and treatments in accordance with Article 32 of the Constitution. Such care shall be given in full respect for the dignity and civil and political rights of  the person including, to the extent possible, the right to freely chose the physician and place of care.  The mayor, as local health authority, shall order the involuntary health  assessments and treatments by a special provision, based on a request by a physician which shall also include the reasons for such request.  The involuntary health medical assessments and treatments shall be carried out by the public community health care services and centres and any required hospitalisation shall take place in public hospital facilities or in those which are under contract with the public health system. Involuntary assessments and treatments must be joined with initiatives to obtain the consent and participation of the person obliged.  The local health care agencies shall operate in such a manner as to reduce the recourse to the aforesaid involuntary health assessments and treatments by means of  initiatives aimed at health prevention and education and the development of structured relationships between the health care services and the local community.

During an involuntary health assessments and treatments, patients have the right to communicate with whomever they wish.

Anyone may petition the mayor to annul or modify the provision by which the involuntary health assessments and treatments have been ordered or prolonged.

In the event of such a petition, the mayor shall decide within 10 days.  The provision to annul or modify such care shall be adopted following the same procedure as the provision being annulled or modified.

诊断和治疗一般是自愿的。在现存法律和其他特别法的规定下,根据宪法第32条,有权卫生部门当局可以要求进行非自愿性诊断和治疗。在这种情形下,被治疗者的人格尊严以及民事、政治权利必须得到最大程度的尊重,包括自由选择医生和选择被诊断/治疗地点的权利。地区长官应该通过发布一条命令以进行非自愿性诊断或治疗,同时需要提供医生对于这些特殊诊断或治疗的原因证明。非自愿性诊断和治疗需要公共卫生服务机构或任何符合资质的公共医疗机构,或公共卫生系统的下属机构进行。非自愿性诊断和治疗的发起必须得到责任人/监护人的允许和参与。当地卫生机构必须要严格执行上述发起程序,以防止非自愿性诊断和治疗的滥用,以及教育和促进医疗机构服务和当地社区的密切关系。

在非自愿性诊断和治疗的过程中,病人有权利联络任何他想要联系的人。

任何人均可向地区长官请求废除或变更已经申请或延长的非自愿性治疗的命令。

在这种情形下,地区长官需要在10日内作出决定。对此决定的废除或变更的程序与原决定程序相同。

 

 

Art. 34

Voluntary and involuntary health assessments and treatments for mental illnesses

 

The departmental services and structures for mental health prevention, care and rehabilitation shall be established by Regional law, within the context of the local health care agencies and the overall general services for health protection.

The measures described in paragraph 2 of the preceding article may also be applied to  persons suffering from mental illness.

The activities for the prevention, care and rehabilitation of mental illnesses shall normally be carried out by the extramural community services and centres described in paragraph 1.[z1]

Involuntary health assessments and treatments for persons suffering from mental illnesses shall be carried out in conditions of hospitalisation only if the mental alterations are such as to require urgent therapeutic measures, if the patient does not accept the aforesaid assessments and treatment or if it is not possible to adopt timely and appropriate health care measures without hospitalisation.  The involuntary treatment in conditions of hospitalisation must be validated beforehand by a physician of the local health care agency (as per paragraph 3 of Art. 33), and must be justified according the  present paragraph.

In the cases  described in the preceding paragraph,  hospitalisation must take place within a general hospital, in specific psychiatric stations for diagnosis and treatment within the mental health department that must also include extramural centres and services, in order to guarantee the therapeutic continuity.  The number of beds in the hospital services described in the present paragraph shall be determined by the Regional Health Care Plan.

第34条

精神疾病的自愿性和非自愿性诊断和治疗

关于精神疾病的预防、监控和治疗的公共服务和结构都应该由地区性法律规定,由地区卫生部门和一般疾病预防部门的框架内进行。

上条的第二款的程序也适用于精神病人。

本条第一款所述的精神疾病的预防、监控和治疗活动都应该由外部的社区服务中心来进行。

对于精神障碍者的非自愿性诊断和治疗应该住院进行,而且只能在病人处于急需医疗处置的情况下,病人不接受前述的诊断和治疗或不住院时不可能得到及时和恰当的医疗处置时。住院的非自愿性治疗必须由一个地区卫生部门的医生(如第33条所示的)证实,也必须经过前述的程序证明。

在前述的情形下,住院限于普通医院、卫生部管辖下的用于精神诊断和治疗的精神病专科医院和外部的社区服务中心内,以确保治疗的持续进行。本段所述医疗机构的床位由地区健康法计划决定。

Art. 35

Procedures relating to involuntary health assessments and treatments for mental illnesses in conditions of hospitalisation and jurisdictional safeguard

 

The mayor’s provision ordering involuntary health assessments and treatments in conditions of hospitalisation, which shall be issued within 48 hours after validation as per Art. 34, paragraph 4, and  which shall contain the request by a physician and  the reasons for  the request, as per Art. 33, paragraph 3, as well as the aforesaid validation, must be notified by the town-hall usher to the competent tutelary judge with  jurisdiction for the area in which the city or municipality is located, within 48 hours of hospitalisation.

The tutelary judge, having acquired the information and provided for any verifications, shall validate or invalidate, within 48 hours, the involuntary treatment by means of a decree which shall contain the reasons for the decision and shall notify the mayor.  If the  provision is not validated, the mayor shall order the termination of the involuntary treatment in conditions of  hospitalisation.

If the provision described in paragraph 1 of the present article is ordered by the mayor of a city or municipality different from  the patient’s place of legal residence, the mayor of this latter city or municipality shall be notified, as  well as the competent tutelary judge with jurisdiction for the  city or municipality of residence. If the provision described in paragraph 1 of the present article is adopted for foreign nationals or persons without any nationality, the Ministry of the Interior and competent consulate shall be notified by the Prefect.

If the involuntary treatment needs to be prolonged beyond the 7th day, and for any additional extensions of such treatment, the medical director of the psychiatric service of the local health care agency shall, in a timely manner,  request an extension from the mayor who has ordered the hospitalisation, stating the reasons for this request. The mayor shall then notify the tutelary judge, following the procedures described in paragraphs 1 and 2 of the present article, indicating the presumed duration of the extension of the involuntary treatment.

The aforesaid medical director shall notify the mayor, both in the case of the  release of the hospitalised person or his continued hospitalisation, of the termination of the conditions which required the involuntary treatment. [z2]  The aforesaid medical director  shall also notify the mayor if involuntary treatment cannot be continued.  The mayor shall then notify the tutelary judge within 48 hours of being notified by the medical director.

If necessary, the tutelary judge shall adopt the urgent provisions required in order to preserve and administer the patient’s finances and property.

The failure  to notify, as per  paragraphs 1, 4 and 5 of the  present  article, shall result in the termination of all of the provision’s effects and such failure shall constitute the criminal omission of an official act, if some more serious criminal act is not involved.

The person receiving involuntary treatment, or any other interested party, may appeal the provision validated by the tutelary judge in the competent tribunal.

Within 30 days, beginning from the term set by paragraph 2 of the present article, the mayor may also make such an appeal by not validating the  provision ordering the involuntary treatment.

At the time of the hearing, the parties may appear before the Tribunal without legal representation and may be represented by a person or persons provided with a written mandate included in  the appeal, or in a separate legal deed. The  appeal may be submitted to the Tribunal by means of certified post with notification of receipt.

The president of the Tribunal shall set the date of the hearing of the parties by means  of a decree attached to the appeal, which shall by notified by the Clerk of the Court to the respective parties and to the Public Prosecutor.

The president of the Tribunal, after having acquired the provision ordering the involuntary treatment and consulted with the Public Prosecutor, may suspend the involuntary treatment even prior to the first appearance of the parties before the Tribunal.

The president of the Tribunal shall decide on the request for suspension within ten days.

The  Tribunal shall deliberate in its chambers, after having heard the Public Prosecutor and acquired any necessary information and evidence through its office or at the request of the parties.

The appeals and all subsequent procedures are exempt from stamp tax.  The sentence of the tribunal is not subject to registration.

 

第35条 精神疾病的非自愿性诊断和治疗的住院程序和司法救济

地区长官对于需要住院的非自愿性住院诊断和治疗的命令必须要基于34条所述的证明生效后48小时内发出,而且该命令必须如第33条第三款所规定,包括医生的请求、原因以及证明;该命令必须在住院的48小时之内由市政府所在地符合资格的监护法官进行司法审查,并在市政大厅作出公示。

监护法官经过采证后,应该在48小时内作出非自愿性治疗之命令是否合法的裁决并说明原因;该决定需通知地区长官。如果该命令被裁定为不合法,地区长官必须终止非自愿性治疗。

如收到第一款的非自愿性诊断和治疗的人是外国人或无国籍人,需要由当地政府首脑通知国务部部长(ministry of the interior)和相应大使馆。

如果非自愿性治疗需要长于7天,或者需要延长,当地的精神病服务中心的医疗领导人员需要及时向作出命令的地区长官要求延长。地区长官需要通知监护法官,根据本条第一、二款的程序进行延长非自愿性治疗时间的申请。

无论病人需要延长住院还是缩短住院,前述医疗领导人员都需要向地区长官报告有关病人终结非自愿性住院治疗的情况。如果非自愿性治疗不能继续,前述医疗领导人员也应该向地区长官报告情况。地区长官在收到医疗领导人员的报告后,需要在48小时之内向监护法官报告。

如果有必要,监护法官可以批准紧急命令以保护或管理病人的财产。

如果失职履行本条第一、四、五款的报告义务,该命令将失效;如果没有更严重的犯罪行为,该失职会导致政府行为过失犯罪。受到非自愿性治疗的人,或者利益相关者均可以就该命令的有效性向有管辖权的法庭的监护法官提起上诉。

如本条第二款所述之裁决送达时始30日内,地方长官可以在30日内上诉。上述期间该命令不生效。

庭审时,控辩双方均可不派法律代表出庭(legal representation),也可以委派一人或多人携书面委托书或代理合同出庭。上诉应该随同(by means of certified post with notification of receipt. )证明文件及通知收据提交法庭。

审判长需要通过裁决确定上诉日期,由书记员通知诉讼各方及公诉人。

审判长收到非自愿性治疗申请书及通知公诉人后,即使在上诉第一次开庭前,也可以延长非自愿性治疗。

审判长需要在10日内决定是否延长。

合议庭需要在听取公诉人陈述、收集足够信息、其他诉讼参与人的举证后,仔细考虑。

以上上诉及其所致所有程序均免除印花税。此庭审判决可以不登记(is not subject to registration.)。

 

Title III – Transitory and final norms

 

Art. 64

Transitory and final norms for psychiatric care

The Regions, within the general provisions of the regional health care plans, shall regulate the gradual phasing out of the psychiatric or neuro-psychiatric hospitals as soon they are not in use. The Region shall also establish the date when the temporary extension for the voluntary hospitalisation of persons who were hospitalised before May 16, 1978 and who require psychiatric care with hospitalisation, shall end.  However, this derogation cannot be extended beyond December 31, 1980.

By this same date, and without the possibility of any further extensions, the public agencies must terminate their contracts and agreements with private institutions that provide exclusively psychiatric care.

In any case, it is prohibited to build any new psychiatric hospitals, to use those already existing as specialised psychiatric divisions of general hospitals, to establish in general hospitals psychiatric divisions or departments, and to use as such psychiatric divisions or departments, or neurological or neuro-psychiatric departments.

The Region will also regulate, pursuant to the norms contained in Articles 66 and 68, the assignation to local health care agencies of the assets and personnel of the public care and welfare institutions (IPAB) and of the other public agencies which at the time of the present law going into effect, on behalf of or under contract with the provincial administrations, provide for the hospitalisation and care of mentally ill persons, as well as the distribution of the assets and personnel of the provincial administrations assigned to the facilities and services for psychiatric care and mental hygiene.  When such facilities and services involve more than one Region, the Regions involved shall proceed in agreement among themselves.

Beginning January 1, 1979, the Region shall establish psychiatric services as per Article 35, utilising the personnel of the public psychiatric services.  In the event that there are no public psychiatric structures in the provincial territory, the Region, within the general provisions of the regional health care plan and for the purpose of establishing mental health centres within the local health care agencies, shall regulate the assignation of such personnel of the private psychiatric structures as shall make a specific request (and which structures at the time of the present law going into effect have contracts for providing care), and shall authorise, where necessary, the hiring by a public competition of the other personnel indispensable for the functioning of such centres.第64条

暂时的和最终的精神病监护

根据地区健康发展计划,应该逐步停止使用精神病或神经-精神病医院,以及规范在这些医院停止使用后,医院旧址的管理。地区需要确认在1978年3月16日之前自愿入院治疗的人员,确定这些人哪些可以结束治疗,哪些仍然应该继续治疗。但是后续的住院治疗不能超过1980年12月31日。

与此同时,如果没有延长治疗的合法情形时,有关部门必须终止所有私人机构之间的有关隔离进行精神病治疗的合同或协议。

在此情形下,禁止建立新的精神病医院作为现存普通医院中的精神病专科;禁止建立新的精神病医院以作为新建医院的精神病专科;禁止建立新的精神病医院以作为精神病专科或者神经科或神经-精神病专科。

基于第66条、68条的原则,地区政府应依法在本法生效时规范地区卫生部门的财产和人事、公共政策、财政预算和其他公共机构,地区政府代表省级政府并且在省级政府的领导下,提供和分配由上级政府分配的用于精神病住院和治疗等精神卫生方面的财产资源和人力资源。如果这些资源是分配给多个地区的,各个地区在应就资源分配达成共同协议。

自1979年1月1日开始,各地区应依照第35条建立精神病公共机构,利用精神病公共服务人才。在一个省的范围内都没有公共精神病服务机构时,各地区需要在省级的卫生计划指导下,以建立地区性精神卫生中心为目标,需要规范各地的原本在私人精神病机构工作的精神卫生人才,例如特别回应他们的需求(特别是那些在本法生效时仍负有提供精神治疗服务的合同义务的),如果有需要,可以授权这些人员与其他必不可少的人才竞争上岗。

Until such time as the regional health care plans are adopted, as per the first paragraph of Article 34, the services as per paragraph 5 of Article 34 shall be established and structured as provided for by the Presidential Decree of March 27, 1969, n. 128, in order to guarantee the continuity of health care for the protection of mental health, and those services shall have a maximum of 15 beds each. Until the adoption of the delegated provisions as per Article 47, the health care functions of the director, chief psychiatrist, assistant psychiatrists and attendants of the psychiatric hospitals shall be those established, respectively, by Articles 4 and 5 and Article 7 of the Presidential Decree of March 27, 1969, n. 128.

Until the adoption of the Regional health care plans as per paragraph 1, the prohibitions contained in Article 6 of the Legislative Decree of July 8, 1974, n. 264, which was converted, with amendments, into Italian Law  n. 386 of August 17, 1974, are extended to psychiatric and neuro-psychiatric hospitals which are under the control of the IPAB or other public agencies or provincial administrations.  Any competitions for the hiring of staff shall continue to be carried out in accordance with the procedures applied by each agency or body before the present Law entered into effect.

Included among the health care professionals described at sub-paragraph i) of Article 27 of the Presidential Decree of July 24, 1977, n. 616, are nurses as per Article 24 of  the  Regulation approved by the Royal Decree of August 16, 1909, n. 615.  Taking into account what is provided for by sub-paragraph q) of Article 6 of the present Law, the Region shall provide for the re-skilling and re-training of nursing personnel, in view of (鉴于)the phasing out of psychiatric hospitals and the new functions of such personnel in the mental health services within the local health care agencies.

The norms contained in Article 7, last paragraph of the Italian Law of May 13, 1978, n. 180 shall continue to remain in effect.这些地区性健康计划批准时,于第34条第1款、34条第5款所述的服务设施应该根据1969年3月27日的第128号总统政令设立和建筑,以保证精神健康治疗的持续;每所服务设施的床位均不可多于15张。直到如第47条的授权性法令生效时,领导、主任精神科医生、助理精神科医生和精神病医院工作人员应分别根据1969年3月27日的128号总统政令中第4、5、7条实现其健康促进功能。

本条第一款的地区性健康计划实施时,1974年7月8日第264号立法法第六条的禁止性规定将扩大至受IPAB和其他公共机构或地区政府管辖下的精神病院和神经-精神病医院。该内容经过转化,修订,集中到1974年8月17日第386意大利法中。在本法生效前,雇员的聘请应该继续根据各机构或法人的规定进行竞争。

i)专业的健康机构包括在1977年7月24日的第616号总统令第27条中。这些机构以及本法24条的规定根据1909年8月16日第615号皇家法令通过。q)根据本法第六条规定,由于精神病医院的废止和地区健康服务机关下辖的精神健康服务机构的新功能,地区应该为相关医疗人员提供重新技能训练。

这些原则包含在1978年5月14日的第180号意大利法第7条最后一段所规定准则任然有效保留其效力。

 

Translation by Eric Schneider for the Mental Health Department of Trieste Local Health Agency

Revision and comments by Maria Grazia Giannichedda

Trieste地区健康处精神健康部Eric Schneider翻译

Maria Grazia Giannichedda改写及评论

 

 

Health care plan 健康发展计划

Major 地区长官

Provision 命令

Specific Psychiatric Service / Station 精神专科医院

General Hospital


[1] From Maria Grazia Giannichedda Evaluation of the Mental Health Law Reform in Italy. Lessons learned presentation for the Second WHO International Training Forum on Mental Health, Human Rights and Legislation, Geneva, 10-12 November 2003

 

 

[2] Source:  ordinary supplement to the ‘Official Gazette’, n. 360, December 28, 1978


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