前几天的东西还没来得及整理，看sexual offenders 的论文真是有趣到要命。
Campbell, A.M. (2009). False faces and broken lives
how male sex offender uses manipulation to isolate and groom the victim for a sexual relationship
1 luring communication theory and deviant sexual behavior:
cycle:development of deceptive trust by the male sex offender with the victim
central concept: ‘the sex offender’s ability to cultivate relationships with potential victims and possibly their families that are intended to benefit the sex offender’s own sexual interests’.
grooming: ‘the subtle communication strategies that child sexual abusers use to prepare their potential victims to accept sexual contact.
process: communication desensitization and reframing
>> begins to reframe sexual activity as an appropriate interaction between himself and the victim
power and control inherent
similarity: Ward and Beech (2004) [the article in Problem 3] a multipathway model to be used when assessing risk for sex offending behavior, and when the offence happens the 4 factors (intimacy and social skill deficits, distorted sexual scripts, emotional dysregulation, cognitive distortion) interact with each other.
specified of the sex offenders: ‘sexual interest and regulation of sexual behavior; attitudes that are supportive of sexual assaults; overall interpersonal functioning, and emotional liability’
question: how the socially anxious and incompetent comunicator uses specific communication strategies to begin the ‘grooming process’ with child victim.
social skills: ‘repeatable goal directed behaviors, behavioral patterns, behavior sequences that are appropriate to the interactional context
unemployed men in the community ranked closely with the child molesters in social competency. (lol)
child molester: lack social self-confidence, most socially anxious, the least assertive
how do they manage the relationship:
「a person’s ability to present themselves effectively to others in a communication interaction and to respond appropriately to cues from the other person.
they use 5 categories of attributes or impressions to manage their presentation of self during communication interactions: supplication, inimidation, self-promotion, ingratiation, exemplification.
「a communicative and interactional practice, in which a manipulator exercises control over other people, usually against their will or against their best interests
involve social control and mind control
- social control involves the use of power by one person over another and further defines social control as a form of power abuse or domination.
- secrecy and verbal coercion as strategies to prevent the child victim from disclosing the true nature of the relationship
not only to prevent disclosure by the victim but also to manipulate other adults to maintain access to the child victim
Research Question 1: Using the writings produced by male sex offenders in therapy, which categories of strategic self presentation are used by male sex offenders in establishing a sexual relationship with the victim?
Research Question 2: What kinds of manipulative behaviors produced by male sex offenders in therapy toward victims are revealed in their writings?
self-reported information in therapeutic papers, 36 men
METHOD: self-reported paper about histories and therapy; questionnaire about the use of the Internet to communicate with the victim, the use of verbal pressure with the victim, methods used to prevent disclosure by the victim, and methods used in getting the victim to participate in the sexual activity.
least used 2 communication skills:
ingratiating >> too insincere
exemplification >> appears to be morally responsible regarding his behavior
most usual mental control:
1 giving gifts, privileges, participation in activities: [Two thirds of the offenders in this study reported they did not use verbal pressure to gain the victim’s compliance in not disclosing the sexual relationship to anyone.]
2 secrecy; [ Secrets and the victim’s ability to be trusted not to disclose the activity are vital to the offender’s ability to not only establish the relationship with a victim but also to maintain it.]
Levenson, J.S., Becker, J., & Morin, J.W. (2008). The relationship between victim age and
gender crossover among sex offenders. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and
Treatment, 20, 43-60.
Olson, L.N., Daggs, J.L., Ellevold, B.L., & Rogers, T.K.K. (2007)
His paper developed the luring model.