forensic psychology 历史

from edited by Rebecca Jackson

早期心理学家不被认为是有效的专家证人。只有执业医生才有资格。其实就跟中国的现状差不多。

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first informal research: (arguably) could be traced back from 1890s behavioral and psychometric movements, first forensic psychological study on the reliability of courtroom eyewitness testimony.

first formal legal assessment: (arguably) 1916 with the use of testing to assess the intelligence of 30 applicants for police and firefighting position (Terman, 1917)

the earliest court decision on the subject generally rejected any role of psychologist as testifying experts, holding that only physicians were qualified to do so (Odom v. Sate, 1911).

it was not until 1962 that Judge Bazelon, then a circuit judge for the united sates Court of Appeals for the District of Coloumbia, wrote in Jenkins v. United States that psychologists who were appropriately qualified could testify in court as experts in mental disorders, and that the psychological measures they employed could be used to support their opinions.

today, police psychology and correctional psychology are both well-developed practice areas within applied clinical psychology.

ongoing debate: whether these practice areas fall within the professional ambit of forensic psychology

psychometric methods movement (1890s) >> court acceptant (1960s) >> forensic psychology moved into mainstream (late 1970s) >> being officially recognized (2001)

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