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抄书

http://touch-moments.blogspot.nl/2015/06/blog-post_18.html

这篇blog提及三个原则:

1. 安抚自己

面對受害者,我們有太多的不捨跟眼淚,不是急著「追究責任與賠償」,而是先「暫停」一下,五分鐘、或是十分鐘,跟您的配偶、伴侶一起整理一下自己的感覺。

2. 承认生命是充满未知的,包括养孩子这件事

3. 和子女谈及伤害和死亡,建立连接并避免不当信息

几个原则:

  • 不要谈及令人惊恐的细节,例如几刀、抢救的情形、凶手有多变态等
  • 针对事实进行描述,例如“有一個小朋友一個人去上廁所的時候被躲在廁所的壞人殺死了”
  • 不要回避谈及死亡,不要用“去见佛祖了”之类的代语
  • 告诉孩子你爱ta,所以请ta保护好自己

4. 协助孩子建立保护自己的方式

而不是禁止孩子接触外面的世界

當放眼望去只有自己跟配偶是有保證的人,不會傷害孩子,看老師也覺得老師會霸凌、看同學也覺得同學會欺負孩子、看陌生人都覺得要拐自己的孩子、上廁所的他人都有問題,這樣父母肩上的壓力也未免太沉重。而且對孩子來說「這個世界是充滿危險的」、「所以我最好不要引人注意」或因此都不要跟陌生人講話,這些禁令會綑綁了孩子,讓孩子難以伸展跟探索,這樣的狀況往往反過來會增加父母親養育的壓力。

這樣關係的壓力鍋並不是一件好事,讓彼此都無法呼吸。

5. 建立自己的信任网络,彼此协助。而不是一直逃避。“築高圍牆、大門深鎖、不跟陌生人溝通”

這世界上一定有喪心病狂的人,但,你的冷漠與忽視跟漠不關心,會讓你身邊那些原本可以支持你、擴張的安全版圖縮小。同時,那些原本可以不會用這麼激烈的方式表達憤怒與被忽視的痛苦的人,會因為一次又一次的人際失落、詢求協助失落、自己難以獨立解決問題而變成不定時炸彈。

我只是想起關於大腦圖像與暴力基因的那個研究,研究者震驚於自己與殺人魔有類似的暴力基因、但他沒有成為暴力者的那則報導;其中同理心、與他人的正向關係成為保護因子、使他安然成長。反觀現在的環境、讚頌個人決定勝者王敗者寇、一個同理像是傻瓜會吃虧、跟他人的關係充滿競爭與奚落的社會、保護因子少了、誘發的機會多了。

关心他人,即是在构筑自己的信任网络,也是在减少暴力产生的诱因。

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narrow >> broad

 

most narrow: only clinical practice

 

The Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists promulgated by the Committee
on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists  (1991)

professional practice by psychologists within any subdiscipline of psychology (e.g., clinical, developmental, social, and experimental) when they are engaged regularly as experts and represent themselves as such in an activity primarily intended to provide professional psychological expertise to the judicial system.

 

American Psychology Association (2001)

clinical aspects of forensic assessment, treatment, and consultation (Otto & Heilbrun, 2002).

 

the American Psychology-Law Society (Division 41 of the American Psychological Association)

all professional practice by any psychologist working within any subdiscipline of psychology (e.g., clinical, developmental, social, and cognitive) when the intended purpose of the service is to apply the scientific, technical, or specialized knowledge of psychology to the law and to use that knowledge to assist in solving legal, contractual, and administrative problems (Committee on the Revision of the Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists, 2006)

 

broader: integration of applied and experimental psychology

An example of one such definition suggests that the term “[f]orensic psychologist refers to any psychologist, experimental or clinical, who specializes in producing or communicating psychological research or assessment information intended for application to legal issues” (Grisso, 1987, p. 831; see Bartol & Bartol, 2006).

 

broadest:

using psychological knowledge and research not only to assist legal actors within the judicial system, but also asserts that the field has a role to play as a therapeutic agent and evolutionary force within legal contexts.

(can act as a guild and advocate for making the law more therapeutic, and in doing so help the legal system become more effective in achieving its aims. << influenced by “theralaw” = “psycho-legal” and therapeutic jurisprudence traditions (which assert that the legal system should seek to promote the health and emotional well-being of individual citizens in addition to ensuring justice and social order (e.g., Wexler & Winick, 1996).)

 

我其实最高理想是做broadest的那种吧。但其实要把narrow的那种做好也很不容易,而且也相当有趣。大部分心理学转型的同学都向往中间那种。只有做中间那种做到一定程度才有可能总是在做最narrow的那种 (例如corine, 从clinical转型到forensic,或者david, 从therapist 到狭窄的forensic therapist)。